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PGD/IVF – Baby Gender Selection

Can you choose your baby’s gender?

With PGD technology, Yes, you can!

PGD/IVF – Baby Gender Selection

Baby Sex selection (baby gender selection)

CPGD, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has become the method of choice to influence the gender of a baby.

Basic Biology of Gender Determination

The sex of a baby is determined at the moment of conception by the chromosomes present in the egg and sperm. Human beings have two “sex” chromosomes: The “X” and “Y” chromosomes. Female eggs contain only X chromosomes but male sperm contains either an X chromosome or a Y chromosome.

An embryo is female if an X bearing sperm fertilizes the egg resulting in an “XX” embryo. A male will result if a Y bearing sperm fertilizes the egg resulting in an XY embryo.

PGD/IVF - Basic Biology of Gender Determination

 

PGD/IVF - Basic Biology of Gender Determination

PGD for gender selection

PGD (Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis) can be used to detect which embryos are XX or XY. The desired embryos can be placed into the female’s uterus to achieve pregnancy.

PGD is the only method for gender selection that is close to 100% accurate. Other methods for gender selection attempt to separate the X and Y bearing sperm. To date, none of these techniques has achieved a success rate greater than 75-80%.

IVF with PGD is the most successful and accurate way to perform gender selection. Its only limitation is the fertility potential of the couple attempting pregnancy.

PGD/IVF - PGD for gender selection

PGD Baby Gender Selection (baby sex selection) Procedure: 

PGD ( pre implantation genetic diagnosis) is a laboratory  technique to  analyze the chromosomes of embryos and to look for genetic diseases. This profound technique has allowed physicians to compare healthy embryos and embryos with genetically disorders before the woman get pregnant. So if a pregnancy will happen, the embryo will definitely be healthy and no miscarriage will be necessary.

PGD/IVF - PGD Baby Gender Selection (baby sex selection) Procedure

Some conditions are catched via standard PGD are the following:
Chromosome X: Duchene muscular dystrophy, Fragile X Syndrome, and Turner’s syndrome
Chromosome Y: Acute myeloid leukemia
Chromosome 13: Wilson Disease, breast cancer, ovarian cancer
Chromosome 18: Pancreatic cancer, Niemann-Pick Disease
Chromosome 21: Down’s syndrome
There are other conditions such as the sickle cell in which materials need to be prepared before the start of the process. The preparation may take time and prices for different conditions may vary greatly compared to the standard PGD procedure described above.
There are countless other conditions that can be catched via the PGD procedure. Some of these conditions are gender specific. When such a situation is present, then sex selection can be done between given embryos in order to separate them as healthy or unhealthy.
Selection of the sex can also be done under the family-balancing concept. The laws in North Cyprus allow this procedure. Couples who have at least 1 child can apply the center to request sex selection procedure of their new child. Parents with no children cannot apply the center for sex selection requests.

More about PGD

PGD/IVF - More about PGD

  • Introduced 16 years ago, PGD has now been performed in at least 10.000 cycles, with the majority applied for selection and transfer of exploit embryos in assisted reproduction.
  • PGD allows the avoidance of birth of children with inherited disease without risk of pregnancy termination. Examples are:
  • PGD improves implantation and pregnancy rates in poor prognosis IVF treatment.
  • PGD reduced over four-fold spontaneous abortion in carriers of chromosomal translocations.
  • PGD application is currently expanding to testing for late onset disorders and producing HLA matched offspring, as potential donors for siblings requiring HLA identical stem cell transplantation
  • PGD provides access to human embryonic stem cell lines with normal and abnormal genotypes, allowing research on the primary disease mechanisms, to develop treatment regiments for genetic disorders, which are unavailable at present.

What are the most important points of PGD for gender selection?

PGD is performed as part of an in vitro fertilization – IVF cycle. In order to successfully achieve pregnancy with IVF, there are several important factors:

  • A woman must take and respond to fertility medications in order to retrieve multiple eggs and therefore create multiple embryos
  • The embryos that are created must grow and develop normally
  • The embryos that are created must not have any chromosome abnormalities
  • Older women are less likely to get pregnant with IVF even if their fertility is normal

Do you need to choose your baby’s gender? Contact with us.

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IVF – ICSI

Fertility Treatments

15 percent of the population is considered infertile. Infertility is described as not having a baby after 6 months of unprotected intercourse.

Infertility is increasing in modern communities. In men declines in sperm count due to toxic environment and possible evolutionary effects is noted. Also women due to educational and career concerns are married at a later age. Average menopausal age ranges between 48 and 52 in women. We now know that, several years before the menopause women are unable to bear children due to the diminished ovarian function.

Historically, the menopausal age did not change and the chance of having a baby is very slim as the female approaches menopause. Therefore we recommend that all women especially with the family history of early menopause should have a baby at an earlier age. All the infertility treatments and even IVF cannot be successful if women’s ovarian function is diminished.

How do we approach the infertile couple?

We first evaluate the male partner. Two or three sperm counts one month apart are ordered and evaluated. WHO (World Health Organization) and Krugers` criteria is used to analyze the sperm parameters. If the sperm count is abnormal, hormonal tests and ultrasound of the testes is performed. This way, hormonal and vascular problems may be detected. In male infertility however, medical and surgical therapies are getting less and less popular due to high failure rates.

Therefore for male infertility, currently artificial insemination or IVF/ICSI is recommended, depending on sperm count results.

For women, we order FSH, LH, E2, PRL, and TSH levels on the third day of the period. If these are normal, ovulations are monitored with ultrasound. If there is an ovulation problem it is treated by oral medications or hormonal injections, monitored by ultrasound. If the ovulation is normal, then Hysterosalpingography ( X-ray of the uterus and tubes) is performed to rule out the tubal blockage. If there is a problem with the tubes, laparoscopic correction is tried in certain cases. However, in recent years due to highly successful IVF/ICSI results, tubal surgery is performed less often.

IVF Treatment | IVF Cyprus

In some couples no cause is found. This is called as unexplained infertility. In this group, firstly 3 to 6 months of ovulation induction treatment is given. If this is unsuccessful, artificial insemination is used for 3 to 6 months as well. If all these fail, then IVF/ICSI should be performed

In general, below age 40 with normal hormones of the female, classical treatments are successful in almost 70 percent of the cases.  IVF/ICSI would be the answer if the classical treatments are unsuccessful, the sperm count is very low, and both tubes are blocked.

The age of woman is a serious factor. If the age is over 40, the chance of getting pregnant is lessened, so the classical non-IVF treatments should be given for a short time only.  Therefore IVF/ICSI is used earlier and more often.

IVF/ICSI

In 1978, the first test tube baby Louisa Brown is born in London. This revolutionized the infertility technology. Millions of IVF babies have been born and procedure is getting more and more popular.

In normal conditions, women produce an egg and this egg is captured by the Fallopian Tube. Egg travels in the tube and meets the sperm. Fertilization occurs in the tube and 2-3 days later, the fertilized egg (zygote) enters the uterine (womb) cavity. Under natural circumstances, this zygote implants in the endometrium (lining of the womb) and the chance of pregnancy is 20% only. For some reason, these events cannot occur in infertile couples.

IVF/ICSI procedure mimics these natural events. Women are received hormonal injections to increase their number of available eggs. The eggs are monitored closely by ultrasound. When they reach to 18-20 mm in size, they are triggered by HCG injection to complete maturity which happens after 36 hours. At this time patients are taken to the operation room and under sedation anesthesia eggs are retrieved by ultrasound guided follicle puncture.

Meanwhile, male partner gives sperm. Sperm is evaluated and most mobile and normal part is taken to be used for the IVF/ICSI procedure.

In normal IVF procedure, eggs are placed in a Petri dish and inoculated with 100.000 sperm per egg. Mixture is placed in incubators and following day eggs are checked for fertilization. In normal circumstances with a good sperm count approximately 70/80 percent of the eggs are fertilized. The eggs continue to divide and two days after the egg recovery they achieve 4 cell stage. On the third day, embryos reach 8 cell stage. Same day, healthiest three embryos are taken and placed in the women’s uterus by plastic catheter. In our center all the embryo transfers are performed under careful ultrasound guidance in which uterus is seen easily, and embryos are transferred exactly 2cm below the top of the cavity. This is gives the best pregnancy chance.  Pregnancy test is performed 12 days later.

ICSI procedure ( Intracytoplasmic sperm injection)

In IVF procedure sperm and egg are placed in the same dish and fertilization of the eggs by the sperm is expected. However, if the sperm count is extremely low or the sperm is mostly abnormal, fertilization cannot occur. Even with the normal sperm sometimes fertilization cannot happen for some unknown reason. In ICSI procedure single sperm is taken and injected into the egg by means of micro needles which guarantees the fertilization.

ICSI procedures are getting more and more popular, because it does not take a chance of “sperm not fertilizing the egg”. In our clinic, ICSI is used routinely and therefore the pregnancy rates are increased. Unlike other clinics in the western world, there is no surcharge for ICSI at IVF Cyprus Clinic.

Sometimes no sperm is found due to congenital absence of connecting tubes between the testes and the penis. In this situation, sperm can be found by testicular biopsy. This is called TESE procedure. Sperm achieved this way can also be used for ICSI.

How do we increase the pregnancy rates?

In order to increase the success rates, certain procedures are performed as necessary. For example, some embryos have a thick outer layer which prevents the embryos to attach the lining of the womb. To solve this problem, the laser is used to thin out the outer layer.  This is called the Assisted Hatching. Also in some cases, the embryos are transferred not 3 but 5 days after the egg recovery to select best embryos. 5th day embryo is called blastocyst and this procedure is called blastocyst transfer.

In multiple IVF/ICSI failures, one reason maybe chromosomally abnormal embryos. For this reason PGD (preimplantation genetic diagnosis) is performed. With this technique one cell from the 4 cell embryo is taken carefully and examined for chromosome analysis.  Embryos, which have normal chromosomes are then selected, and transferred to the woman’s uterus the following day.

In some IVF/ICSI cycles several embryos are produced and three of them are given, remaining good quality Donor embryos are frozen for the future use. Embryo freezing is a well developed technique today that allows women to have another chance of pregnancy. Embryo freezing is much cheaper than regular cycle because no medication is used and no anesthesia is required. Embryos are frozen for several years and can also be used in the future if the couple desires another child or if the first cycle is unsuccessful.

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Donor Embryo Treatment

Donor Embryo Procedure :

Th is procedure is necessary when the woman is in the menopausal era, or have fertility issues such as poor ovarain reserve and when the man has no/or very low quality sperm.Embryo Donation | IVF Cyprus

IVF Clinic performs both fresh and frozen embryo donation procedures. Fresh Embryo donation involves the preparation of a donor lady with IVF drugs for 10-12 days. When the donor lady goes into the egg collection,  frozen sperm vial from the male donor is also prepared and the ICSI ( microinjection method) is performed. Up to 3 embryos can transferred, preferrably at the blastocyst stage to the receipient’s womb. The receipient can be prepared at her home country. Medications to thicken the endometrial lining will be used and the lining will be monitored via several US scans. 3 day stay in Cyprus will be enough.

Frozen Embryo procedures are also offered at the clinic. Embryos from previous IVF Cycles are frozen and kept in the laboratory. The embryos will be thawed and be transferred to the recipient’s womb after its preparation in the home country with medications. 3 days stat in Cyprus will be enough.

For prices and other questions, please contact us.

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Success Rates

 

Success Rates

Success rates of patients are analyzed according to the treatment types.

For the donor egg patients, 3 embryos are transferred mainly on the blastocyst stage. Average receipient age is 42. Success rates are for the clinical pregnancy, meaning the fetal heart beat of the baby seen on the ultrasound. Average age of the donors was 25.

For the sperm donation and PGD patients, women are stimulated via drugs.

 

 

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Donor Sperm

Donor Sperm Procedure :

Donor Sperm
Sperm donation procedure is necessary if the physicians are unable to find sperm from the males after Micro TESE ( microsurgical testicular extraction) which is an advanced operation. In addition to that, very low sperm quality is also an obstacke for the success of IVF treatments, therefore some couples directly choose to use a donor sperm.

IVF Cyprus Clinic performs sperm donor procedures. Sperms can be chosen by the patients from international cyrobanks or IVF Cyprus Clinic can provide sperms..Sperm samples in the cyrobanks are accepted after the completion of necessary tests such as HIV, Anti HCV etc by the donator.

In sperm donation procedure, IVF ICSI is being performed mainly as this treatment offers the highest possible chances for a successful pregnancy.

The woman or the couple should stay 21 days in Cyprus for this treatment. The first 10-12 days are necessary for the egg development. This part can also be done in the home country of the woman. IVF Cyprus has partners in England and can also work with the own doctors’ of patients.  Next stage is the egg collection and the application of the ICSI technique fort he fertilization. 3 to 5 days later will the embryo transfer performed. Up to 3 embryos can be transferred and excess embryos can be frozen. 12 days after the ET, the pregnancy test is performed.

Before the woman is accepted to the program, she should undergo several tests on the third day of her bleeding. 1 month after this date, so when the new menstrual bleeding arrives, the woman starts the egg development phase.

For further questions, please contact us.

 

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Donor Egg

Medical Necessasity of the Donor egg treatment:

In the current era, women get married when they approach their mid-late 30’s and start to plan their conceptions plans just newly. Unfortunately, the biology of the woman changes greatly after the age of 38 and the chance for becoming pregnant via natural ways diminishes.

Couples tend to try IVF ICSI cycles several times with their own eggs and sperm, but if these cycles do not become successful due to reasons such as poor ovarian response, lack of quality of the eggs and developed embryos, then a donor egg cycle will be recommended. In addition to that, women who underwent chemotherapy in the past lose their fertility ability and seek the donor egg treatment as the only possible to carry a child and deliver it. Women in the menapusal era can also get pregnant via the egg donation procedure.

Since donor egg treatment involves using the eggs of a donator, the issue can become complexed for the egg recipients. At this stage, recipients must be enlightened about the following:

-What are the ethical standards to choose the ladies and use their eggs?

-What tests do the donor ladies complete before acceptance to the program?

– What are the rights of the donor lady, recipient and the child ?

 

IVF Cyprus Clinic accepts applications of donor ladies between 20-28 years of age. 1 donor lady can donate the eggs only for 3 times. Donor ladies are mostly  students and are anonymous. Donor ladies have no rights on the children.

From donor ladies all of the following tests are required:

Thalasemia
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
HIV
VDRL

The medical process for the preparation of the egg recipient and the donor lady :

Egg recipients first provide their characteristics, blood groups, and also the intended month of having the treatments. s IVF Cyprus then matches the donor lady from several options and gets the approval of the egg recipient. After this, the egg receipient is mainly prepared in their home country either by their own doctors or by the partners of IVF Cyprus.  The egg recipient starts using medications in forms of pills which increase the thickness of the lining of the womb so that an embryo transfer can take place. This process takes about 12 days after which the couple arrives in Ercan Airport in Lefkosa, Northern Cyprus. In the meantime, the donor lady undergoes the ovarian stimulation period for the development of the eggs. When the couple is in Cyprus, the man gives sperm and eggs of the donor lady are collected. On the same day, ICSI (microinjection ) is done to fertilize the eggs of the donor lady with the man’s sperm.  3 to 5 days later, up to 3 embryos are transferred to the egg recipient’s uterus.  12 days later pregnancy test is performed. Total stay in Cyprus becomes only 8 days when the couples start their treatments in their home countries under the supervision of IVF Cyprus. Otherwise, total stay can increase up to 21 days for the egg recipient which is unnecessary.

For further questions, please contact us.

 

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IVF CYPRUS